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Professor Jim Al-Khalili traces the story of arguably the most important, accurate and yet perplexing scientific theory ever: quantum physics.

The story of quantum physics starts at the beginning of the 20th century with scientists trying to better understand how light bulbs work. This simple question soon led scientists deep into the hidden workings of matter, into the sub-atomic building blocks of the world around us. Here they discovered phenomena unlike any encountered before – a realm where things can be in many places at once, where chance and probability call the shots and where reality appears to only truly exist when we observe it.

Albert Einstein hated the idea that nature, at its most fundamental level, is governed by chance. Jim reveals how in the 1930’s, Einstein thought he’d found a fatal flaw in quantum physics. This was not taken seriously until it was tested in the 1960s. Professor Al-Khalili repeats this critical experiment, posing the question does reality really exist, or do we conjure it into existence by the act of observation?

Elsewhere, we explore how the most famous law of quantum physics – The Uncertainty Principle – is obeyed by plants and trees as they capture sunlight during the vital process of photosynthesis. Could quantum mechanics explain the greatest mystery in biology – evolution?

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39 COMMENTS

  1. peter van Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    @ 11:15 The fuzzy shadow at the edges of the hand. I would contribute that to the different angles of the light from either side of the Sun.

    Reply
  2. CR Cardistry Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    It's all just 1s and 0s – we're all collectively experiencing our own simulated realities which are rendered as necessary.

    Reply
  3. feroz m Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    I too thought of an additional dimension while watching the video…like we are seeing actions only in one plane(our observable dimensions) and all matter may be interconnected or effected through a other dimension which we cannot conceive or imagine…..

    Imagine a symmetrical 3d object 'U' with varying thickness passing through a 2d plane of our world like paper(our observable dimensions)….

    When one side of "U" is observed by the people on the paper( the length of cross section on the paper…) They see a "spooky action" of having same length on other side of the crosssection of 'U' ..(how does this side of 'U' crossection tell the other it's length)..

    It's 'spooky' as the paper people found out that nothing can travel faster than a speed constant say c…and this spooky phenomenon is way faster than that…(but they don't know that it has got nothing to do with the limitation of speed in the paper plane/observable universe but the size of the 3d 'U'…).

    Reply
  4. Donald Mach Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    Interesting video, but why would you stick Einstein's picture on your thumbnail? He was a proponent for general relativity, totally opposite of quantum theory? 🤔

    Reply
  5. Y. Dobon Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    One can't observe the "whole" reality from a distance, so every theory about that is nonsens.

    Reply
  6. Y. Dobon Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    Je kunt de "hele" werkelijkheid nooit van een afstand bekijken, dus elke theorie daarover is nonsens.

    Reply
  7. Augusto Machete Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    It is a mystery to me why people need to add distracting music to their lessons of things that are difficult to understand to begin with. Very amateurish, IMHO.

    Reply
  8. mupster2 Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    So Quantum Mechanics was the original 'lightbulb moment'?

    Reply
  9. devilboykillz Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    your test was flawed cuz he only did two coins with two outcomes. You did cards. Not even comparable. plus what happens if you add a 3rd coin to his experiment. how will that fall. or what happens if it is a two sided coin? The moon is their rather we look at it or not. like the sun for example. if im asleep at night means it wouldnt exist so why can other see it on other side of world.

    Reply
  10. M.ISHRAQ AKRAM Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    A single force behind all these concepts is a single divine Allah almighty force. I will appreciate science after approaching this reality.

    Reply
  11. M C Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    Its easy to "say" Einstein was wrong. Remember that Bohr relies on the fundamental fact that light are moving particles as agreed and previously discovered/suggested by Einstein. I would recommend not contest Mr Einstein in his prime towards the end of his career when he said that Bohr is not right to think that the moon is not there when we are not looking. But, contest Einstein's more accepted discovery/suggestion of light being moving particles which he has supported early in his career. Remember how he died trying to understand what "Quanta" is, he knew deep in his mind that the problem was in his original suggestion which is the same reason Bohr is also working with faulty foundation of knowledge. A few insights from a "Cat": What if light are not "moving" particles or wave? What if light has more to do with communication between spaces and what if light speed has nothing to do with the "speed" of light? The questions above are my theories in question form to contest Einstein's earlier discovery of light being moving particles.

    Reply
  12. Silly Human Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    During the double slit experiment, he showed a wave becoming a particle when it hit the screen.
    I thought a single electron should appear as a wave when it hit the screen.
    Of course, a single electron would be too small to see. You need to repeat it (a lot).
    Does firing a single electron NOT produce a wave pattern? (without a measurement?)
    I thought you had to measure/observe each slit for it to collapse into a "particle"?

    I've seen much better explanations of the dual slit experiment.
    I would love to see the actual experiment and not just examples.
    Exactly how do they "observe"/measure each slit?
    I would love to see the REAL Quantum Eraser experiment too.

    Reply
  13. Ronald Demoraes Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    Does that means that a twin will be come one soul at the end of their life? Im just thinking. Bless from Brasil.

    Reply
  14. Jochen Schueller Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    6:05 Just much more accurate: Pointer goes to eleven

    Reply
  15. Martin Ljubic Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    Single photon diffracts through the grating A or B ….. in a curved trajectory.
    And as much as you would like it to be polarized at a fixed angle, it is not.
    The axis of spin is all over the place as it hits the surface. And depending
    on the angle when it hits the final wall: it will have varying energy levels- of
    light or dark. Photon by photon ; or a multitude at once: you get the same
    outcome. Its the same reason why, without constant adjustment, satellites
    in orbit start to spin out of control: the axis of spin goes all over the place.
    .
    The tumbling photon, travels as an osculation: the tumbling motion is the
    oscilallation. It can best be visualized as marbles inside a round balloon,
    all wizzing around inside. where ever they are pull the balloon in that
    direction. So, when the photon/balloon hits the walls energy of impact will
    be lowest if the marbles are at the other end of the balloon, away from the
    wall. The variation being from full impact to almost no impact.
    .
    The slit experiment therefore demonstrates the particle/quanta nature
    of light. It was always a finite/delimited particle. Light ricochets through
    space: the cause being its internal motions. And the diffraction pattern
    is dependent on the slits being within a precise spacing. The same as
    a spark gap, and for the same reasons. Gap too big, no spark. Slits too
    far apart, no diffraction pattern. NOT WAVES, PARTICLES.

    Reply
  16. Dant Lanz Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    Contrary to what schools have taught for years, the American icon, Thomas Edison, neither invented the
    light bulb, nor held the first patent to the modern design of the light bulb.

    In reality, light bulbs used as electric lights existed 50 years prior to Thomas Edison’s 1879 patent date in the
    U.S.

    Additionally, Joseph Swan, a British inventor, obtained the first patent for the same light bulb in Britain one
    year prior to Edison’s patent date. Swan even publicly unveiled his carbon filament light bulb in Newcastle, England a minimum of 10 years before Edison shocked the world with the announcement that he invented the first light bulb. Edison’s light bulb, in fact, was a carbon copy of Swan’s light bulb.

    Reply
  17. NASA limbu Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    Space phomenal Stephen hasaking

    Reply
  18. NASA limbu Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    Natural phomenal Albert enstain

    Reply
  19. Metaphorical Justice Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    Finally! – Now people can start to see that ANYTHING is possible and everyone's reality is based on what they choose to see 😉 …. great video!

    Reply
  20. Ran Mckalser Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    have you done dmt?

    you might find your answer there.

    Reply
  21. Wardell Lindsay Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    Copyright 2020 Wardell Lindsay
    Electrons are e*=e/2^.5 thus an electron creates random flow!

    Planck's Constant h=qM.
    Electric Quantum
    q=(13U1d) quark=25e/3 =4C/3X
    Magnetic Quantum
    M=Wb/2P
    Universe Aether
    z=M/q=375 Wb/C

    Einstein's light particle are not.
    The energy is quantum
    E=hf=qMf=qV ,
    q is the particle 25e/3 !

    Reply
  22. Moniruzzaman Syed Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    Great video

    Reply
  23. Chris Haberland Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    if you believe light is a wave…if you believe… if you believe?

    Reply
  24. Dawisk Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    Interestingly the auto CC generates baal in place of Bohr during the card game. The simulation is getting to me…

    Reply
  25. Curly From Curly NSW Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    Too many ads.

    Reply
  26. Ali Kazi Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    Amazing documentary.

    Reply
  27. FeltSteam0 Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    Theory: Our eyes or brain emit something on another scale so when we look at something something on that scale changes and that triggers an event which leads to the “dealer” and this could happen when we look at something so that when we flip a coin say it is already determined heads or tails or maybe it’s not just seeing but thinking so you’re thinking of flipping a coin and that triggers an event which leads to the “dealer” when we think of it, so when you go do something the “fate” was already determined then when we interact with that object something happens and the pre determined “fate” is transmitted or told somehow to that object.
    If we could interact with the “transmission” we could say stop a car crash or stuff like that.

    Reply
  28. FeltSteam0 Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    From light to how reality is perceived.. well that escalated quickly

    Reply
  29. AllAnimated93 Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    I shouldn't have watched this. Now I'm pissed off. I'd like to debate this guy. Saying nothing is real until we measure them only adds to my point. Measurements are interpretation of reality not reality itself. At most, it's part of reality but not the whole. Einstein's observations are not wrong.

    Reply
  30. AllAnimated93 Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    To further my point, Al-Khalil's card experiment failed to fully capture the essence of Bohr's ideology. Why is it one or the other? In the context of my previous statement, Bohr, COULD be right if interpretation of reality is considered part of reality itself. However, if this is the case, BOTH Einstein and Bohr were correct.

    Reply
  31. AllAnimated93 Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    That Bohr guy was totally wrong about reality. He described interpretation. Only emotional people are concerned with the interpretation of reality while logical people are concerned with reality itself.

    Reply
  32. John Rutledge Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    I got two minutes in and no . Seems as if this is going to be assinine , real is not real ? how stupid . I cant , i must be stupid for thinking that is stupid. Screw it , im stupid.

    Reply
  33. Jonathan Brown Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    At and immediately after 28mins is mind blowing

    Reply
  34. fersup2 Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    i hope this is science

    Reply
  35. Olly Tropics Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    I haven't finished the doc and I am far from an expert but if the universe is always expanding would that mean that beyond the universe is simply possibility? Yet the possibility won't be actualized until the energy from the big bang gives it the opportunity to create the possibility of existance (I'm assuming the big bang is the catalyst for the creation and actualization of the potential). This is at least what my speculation prior to watching the video was and this seems to aline with my beliefs from what I can tell

    Reply
  36. Olly Tropics Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    I haven't finished the doc but and I am far from an expert but if the universe is always expanding would that mean that beyond the universe is simply possibility and energy?

    Reply
  37. Olly Tropics Posted on July 15, 2020 at 9:42 am

    Lots of pseudo intellectuals in the comments lmao all trying to seem smart smh

    Reply
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